Pulse Code Modulation. A scheme in which the commanded position for each servo is transmitted as a digitally encoded number. Manufacturers use their own proprietary system to encode this number with various levels of precision (i.e. variable number of bits per servo position). JR use Z-PCM (9 bits, 512 different values: 0…511) then S-PCM (10 bits, 1024 values: 0…1023). Futaba use PCM-1024 and G3 PCM (11 bits, 2048 values: 0…2047). With PCM not all positions are broadcasted at one time (each frame) to save time. The odd numbered positions are sent as absolute in one frame, with the even sent only as differences from their previous values. The next frame the opposite is done. PCM includes a checksum at the end of the frame to check the signal’s validity. Hence, if there is interference and the signal arrives distorted at the Receiver, utilizing the checksum it is able to know if it is the original. In case it is not, a feature called Fail-Safe is implemented to set servo positions to a predefined position, or to hold them at the last valid position.